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Journées Micro-Drones 2ème édition 18 – 20 septembre 2002 toulouse, France

Aerodynamic Research on Lifting Surfaces and Performance for Mini & Micro UAVs T. Keuter, G. Boyet (ONERA), R. Decuypere, D. Hermans, D. Jérôme 1

Overview 1. Introduction 2. Wind Tunnel Presentation & Validation 3. Laser Doppler Velocimetry Analysis 4. Pressure Measurements 5. Mirador : A Conceptual Design in partnership with ONERA 6. Conclusions

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1. Introduction § § § § § §

§

Mini / Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) Range : 3 - 10 km Endurance : 20 – 60 min Autonomous Flight Quick setting Civil & Military Applications Challenges : F Low Re numbers F Stability Control ( gust, windshear, …)

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2. Wind Tunnel Facility & Validation § § §

Low speed wind tunnel Low turbulence level Transparent Test Section

< 35 m/s ~ 0.4 % mean speed 457 x 457 mm Digital acquisition

Corner Fillets Stepper motor

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Wind Tunnel Validation

§

Comparison of Force Measurements (CL – CD)

§

Eppler 61 airfoil / Pfenninger 048

§

T. Mueller, University of Notre Dame, USA

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CL Comparison at Different Re 2

1,5 Re87000 Re62300 1

Re46000

CL

Re87000 RMA Re62300 RMA Re46000 RMA

0,5

Re42000 Re42000 RMA

19

17

15

13

11

9

7

5

3

1

-1

-3

-5

-7

-9

-11

-13

-15

0

-0,5 alpha (°)

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CD Comparison at Different Re 0,6

0,5

Re87000 Re62300

0,4

Re87000 RMA Re62300 RMA

0,3

Re46000 RMA Re42000 Re42000 RMA

0,2

0,1

19

17

15

13

11

9

7

5

3

1

-1

-3

-5

-7

-9

-11

-13

0 -15

CD

Re46000

alpha (°)

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CL at Re = 42000 Re 42000 2

1,5

1 CL

Mueller RMA 0,5

19

17

15

13

11

9

7

5

3

1

-1

-3

-5

-7

-9

-11

-13

-15

0

-0,5 alpha (°)

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CD at Re = 42000 Re 42000 0,6

0,5

Mueller

0,3

RMA

0,2

0,1

19

17

15

13

11

9

7

5

3

1

-1

-3

-5

-7

-9

-11

-13

0 -15

CD

0,4

alpha (°)

We ARE performing RELIABLE measurements 9 / 45

9

3. Laser Doppler Velocimetry §

Non-Intrusive Measurement Technique

§

Low Re : 50,000

§

Mesh around the airfoil

§

4,000 particles measured at each point

§

Post-processing of data : Matlab 5.3

§

Qualitative & Quantitative data

(very close ~2 mm)

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Vector representation around 2D - Eppler 61 airfoil at Re 42,000

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Example of quantitative information around a 2D - Tsagi 12 airfoil

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4. Pressure Measurements § One single Transducer § Pressure scanning system

(48 positions)

à stationary flow

§ Tsagi 12 airfoil already tested § Eppler 61 already tested §

Pfenninger 048 will be tested

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Instrumentation - Pressure Taps Machining Tsagi 12

Holes Drilling

Eppler 61

Thin Tubes by Electro Erosion

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Scanning Valve

Scanning Valve

Acquisition Systems : -

Terminal Screw

-

Pressure Transducer

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Cp Measurements Tsagi 12 – alpha 10° - V = 12 m/s Cp distribution around T s a g i 12 - alpha -10 ° - speed 12 m/s 1 Extrados Intrados 0.5

Cp=

Pressure Side

Cp

0

-0.5

p− p∞ 1 ρ∞V∞2 2

Suction Peak on the upper side n

-1

Suction Side

Lift due to lower pressure on the upper side

-1.5

n

-2 0

50

100

150

200

250

x

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5. MIRADOR : A Conceptual Design MIcRo Aerial-vehicle Demonstrator Onera-Rma § Bi-plane concept à better L/D, vortex induced D reduction § Low Aspect Ratio ( < 1) à fly safely § Shape between circular and elliptical à Cl max along span § Progressive dihedral à stabilizing effect, min vortex

induced drag

§ Airfoils :

- MH60 for the wings - NACA 009 for the vertical posts

§ First Version : 150 mm Wingspan § Off-the-Shelf components integration à New Evolution : 250 mm

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Development Methodology Fundamental Aerodynamics

Aerodynamic Characterization

(understanding of phenomena)

Aerodynamic Data Base

Data from propulsion group • • •

motor propeller battery

Pre-Design Mass Estimation Performances

Demonstrator 18 18 / 45

VERSION 250

Front FrontView View 3/4 behind 3/4 behind

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VERSION 250

Presentation Slide of the Vehicle

Top TopView View 3/4 3/4behind behind

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VERSION 250

Presentation Slide of the Vehicle Electronics Access Panel Bottom BottomView View 3/4 behind 3/4 behind

Antenna

Control Surface: elevators

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VERSION 250

Presentation Slide of the Vehicle

Fuselage Fuselageview viewWIRED WIRED

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VERSION 250

Mass and center of gravity Z

Z

X

Y

Micro-vehicle MIRADOR Version 250 Components designation

Surface (mm 2 ) Volume (mm 3 ) Density (kg/dm 3 )

Internal structure of the fuselage (Foam)

Mass (g)

Xg (mm)

Zg (mm)

477664

0,050

23,9

128,20

22,25

34288,0

10286,40

0,300

3,1

130,65

3,75

21338

13867,2

0,300

4,2

102,14

3,40

Electric motor P/N 801V BRUSHLESS

30,0

16,50

7,00

"ULTRALIFE" Battery UBC

86,0

69,00

7,00

Ultra micro receiver NPM05FM

8,0

84,50

9,50

Electronic speed variator Série NES

15,0

51,00

12,00

Circuit "FLIGHT CONTROLLER"

15,0

62,50

-2,00

Sensor "FLIGHT CONTROLLER"

3,0

155,70

72,65

Servo-mechanism

11,0

130,00

3,40

Propeller

1,5

-5,14

7,00

72,7

9,3

Skin on the pressure side (Carbon thick: 0,3mm) Catching hood (Carbon thick: 0,6mm)

Total

201

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VERSION 250 Weight Breakdown

Critical points : Structure 11 %

1. Energy 2. Propulsion

Sensor 6 %

3. Structure

Avionics 4 % Energy Propulsion

Communication 4 %

Communication Avionics Sensor Structure

Propulsion 20 % Energy 55 %

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VERSION 250 Battery

ULTRALIFE Polymer Battery UBC

§

Thin : < 1 mm à 6 mm

§

Lightweight : 1,5 g à ...

§

No memory effect

§

Voltage range : 3 à 4,2 V

§

Capacity range : 30 mAh à 3,800 mAh

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VERSION 250 Brushless Motor

ASTROFLIGHT P/N 801 Mighty Micro

§

Brushless motor

§

Load : 150 mA

§

Length : 23 mm

§

Diameter : 25 mm

§

Propeller : APC 5.5 x 2.5

§

Speed : 13,500 rpm

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VERSION 250 Micro - Servo

WES-Technik LS-2.4

§

Max deflexion : 14 mm

§

Time to full deflexion : 0,2 s

§

Max output force : 175 g

§

Operating voltage : 3-5 V

§

Load Current : < 100 mA

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VERSION 250 Micro - Receiver

WES-Technik JMP RX5-2.3

§

Frequency bandth : 35 MHz

§

Power supply : 3.1 – 15 V

§

Dimensions : 23 x 16 x 6 mm

§

Mass : 1.35 g

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VERSION 250

Micro Camera, Transmitter & Speed Variator

Aveox A-15

Speed Variator

Transmitter

Camera

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VERSION 250

Components Assembly Sensor FLIGHT CONTROLLER

Antenna

Variator

Battery

Motor

Servo-mechanisms

Receiver Circuit FLIGHT CONTROLLER

Battery

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VERSION 250 Wiring Scheme

Circuit FLIGHT CONTROLLER

Sensor FLIGHT CONTROLLER

Motor Variator

Receiver

Batteries Servo-mechanisms Antenna

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VERSION 250

Stabilization sensor

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VERSION 250

View of the Control Surfaces Mechanisms a ± 15°

Control Controlsurface surface UP Position UP Position

Servo control mechanism

Control surfaces

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VERSION 250

Demonstrator Assembly § Decomposition of the Surfaces shaped in

Carbon / Kevlar Fiber Wet Surface : 14,282 mm²

Wet Surface : 25,949 mm²

Density : 188 g/m² à m = 31 g

Total Wet Surface : 164,871 mm²

Wet Surface : 11,189 mm²

Wet Surface : 113,451 mm² 34 34 / 45

VERSION 250

§ Steel Moulds Manufactured

Central support left & right

Upper wing suction side Upper wing pressure side

Bottom wing pressure side

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VERSION 150

Mirador : Results § Analyse of the Support Influence § Force Measurements - Flow Visualisation § Prototype Tested : - 15 cm Wingspan - ABS prototyping

§ Several Tests on the way about Optimum

Biplane :

stagger, decalage , gap, ... 36 36 / 45

VERSION 150

Two Ways of Fixing the Demonstrator

VERTICAL

HORIZONTAL

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VERSION 150

Harmful Effect on the Angle of Attack

VERTICAL

HORIZONTAL

More Vibrations with Horizontal Support ! 38 38 / 45

VERSION 150

CL Measurements Vertical Support 0,9

CL max=0,8

0,8

0,7

0,6

0,5

No noticeable Hysteresis effect

0,4

CL

V=10m/s V=15m/s V=20m/s

0,3

0,2

0,1

0 -10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

-0,1

-0,2

alpha

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VERSION 150

CD Measurements Vertical Support 0,7

0,6

0,5

0,4

CD

V=10m/s V=15m/s V=20m/s

0,3

0,2

0,1

0 -10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

alpha

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VERSION 150

Cm Measurements Vertical Support 0,15

Cm0 > 0 Slope < 0

0,1

0,05

à Stable

0

Cm0 < 0 Slope < 0

Cm relative to AC

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

-0,05

V=10m/s V=15m/s V=20m/s

-0,1

-0,15

-0,2

à Not Stable

-0,25

-0,3

-0,35

alpha

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VERSION 150

Polar Curve - Vertical Support 0,9 0,8

Max lift-to-drag ratio = 5,5

0,7 0,6 0,5

V=10m/s V=15m/s V=20m/s

CL

0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

-0,1 -0,2

CD

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VERSION 150

Flow Visualization

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Conclusions The RMA has: Outstanding equipment Scientific Approach Conceptual Design MIRADOR MAV demonstrator

(on the way)

Next step: Apply PIV Measurement Technique Flight Testing

WE ARE READY FOR THE FUTURE 44 44 / 45

Points of Contact Roland Decuypere Royal Military Academy Department of Mechanics 30 Renaissance Av. B-1000 Brussels, Belgium Tel : +32 (0)2 737 65 50 Fax : +32 (0)2 737 65 47

Guy Boyet ONERA Long-Term Design & Systems Integration Department Chemin de la Hunière F-91761 Palaiseau Cedex, France

E-mail : [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

Tel : +33 (0)1 69 63 62 45 Fax : +33 (0)1 69 93 63 00 E-mail : [email protected]

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