Military Games Angel PEREZ

Invented by Georg Venturini in 1797. ○ 3600 squares .... 2009 VBS2/Game After. Ambush. ○ 2600 Star Trek ... was later made available for download to the.
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Military Games Angel PEREZ

Summary ●

Introduction



Board War-games



Military Games



Serious Games



References

Introduction Games are formalized expressions of play which allow people to go beyond immediate imagination and direct physical activity. Games also allow forms of play to be packaged and communicated to other people in a social group or geographically far away. Games capture the ideas and behaviors of people at one period of time and carry that through time to their ancestors. Games like Liubo, Xiangqi, and Shogi illustrate the thinking of the military leaders who employed them centuries ago.

Board War-games ●

3000 BC Wei Hai



1600 Pachisi



2300 BC Go



1920 Stratego



1500 BC Liubo



1954 Diplomacy



500 BC Chaturanga



1959 Risk



200 BC Xiangqi





500 AD Chess



570 AD Shogi



1973 Dungeons & Dragons 1993 Magic: The Gathering

3000 BC Wei Hai ● ●

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Name means “encirclement” Abstract board on which players placed colored stones Details of game have not survived Believed to be similar to Japanese game of Go

2300 BC Go

1500 BC Liubo ●

Chinese game of battle that morphed into a racing game between 1500BC and 1200AD ● ●



Generals and Pawns Become Fish, Owls, and Stones

As with many others the exact rules have disappeared

500 BC Chaturanga



200 BC Xiangqi

Influences of Go and Chaturanga ● ● ●

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Encirclement Unique identity to pieces Strategic movement of pieces

Used for military strategy Korean variant “Janggi” ●

No central river

500 AD Chess ● ●

European evolution of Indian Chaturanga “Checkmate” is English form of Persian “Shah Mat”, which means “dead king”

570 AD Shogi ● ● ●

Moves very similar to Chess Gold & Silver Generals are unique More aggressive promotion of pieces

1600 Pachisi ●



The Indian Emperor Akbar I of the 16th century Mogul Empire, apparently played Pachisi (aka Chaupar) on great courts constructed of inlaid marble. He would sit on a Dias four feet high in the centre of the court and throw the cowry shells. On the red and white squares around him, 16 women from his harem, appropriately colored, would move around according to his directions.

1920 Stratego

1954 Diplomacy ●



War-gaming quick and fun Diplomacy was originally a playby-mail game ●

Format often used for strategy games like chess and war-games

1959 Risk

1973 Dungeons & Dragons ●







Created by Gary Gygax and David Arneson A new genre of fantasy/imagination games. Dungeon Masters guide players on a quest “Advanced D&D” was created to allow Gygax to carry on without Arneson

1993 Magic: The Gathering ●

Richard Garfield, Ph.D. Combinatorial Mathematics ●

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Mathematics Professor at Whitman College, WA

20 minute war-game in card form for conventions Less record keeping required Cross between War-games and D&D

Military Games ●

1664 Koenigspiel



1780 War Chess



1797 Military School War-game



1811 Kriegsspiels



1879 The American Kriegsspiels





1886 Naval War College





1903 Miniature Games









1920 German Schlactenspeil 1929 Political-Military Gaming 1933 Soviet Kriegsspiel 1941 Japanese War-gaming 1948 First Computer War-games 1952 Charles Roberts

Military Games ●



1978 Janus 1985 Naval Warfare Gaming System



1990 ModSAF



1990 Battle Tech Arcade



1994 FPS



1995 Real Time Strategy



1996 Panzer General



1997 MMORPG



1999 Team Fortress



1999 Fleet Command

1664 Koenigspiel ● ● ● ●

Invented by Christopher Weikhmann 1664 Ulam, Germany Checkered Board with 30 Pieces King, Marshall, Colonel, ... Private

1780 War Chess ● ● ● ● ●

Invented by Dr. C.L. Helwig 1780 Germany 1666 squares, 120 pieces Squares colored for terrain feature Aggregate units - Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery

1797 Military School Wargame ●

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“Rules for a New War-game for the Use of Military Schools” Invented by Georg Venturini in 1797 3600 squares French-Belgian Border

1811 Kriegsspiels ● ● ●

Invented by Baron von Reisswitz in 1811 Contoured terrain, porcelain soldiers Introduced the “General Idea” ●

Unique Scenario with Victory Conditions

1879 The American Kriegsspiels ●



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William Livermore and Hugh Brown in 1879 Variable unit icons with strength, type, fatigue, ammunition, and task time indicators Topographic Maps Pegs-and-Holes firing board

1886 Naval War College ●

Opened in 1884 ●



War-gaming introduced in 1886 by William McCarthy-Little ● ●



Develop operational war fighting concepts through research and wargaming

Cardboard Ships and Gridded Paper 1895 Studied British Naval Attacks on New York Harbor

1897 Teddy Roosevelt presented new problem ●

Japanese/American fight for Hawaii

1903 Miniature Games ●

“The Naval Wargame”, Scientific American, 1903 by Fred T. Jane ● ●



Rules and tools for naval games of war Later author of Jane’s Fighting Ships

Little Wars, 1913 by H.G. Wells ● ● ●

Miniature soldiers and cannon Terrain board & rules of operation Championed firing toy cannons rather than calculations for determining outcome of war

1920 German Schlactenspeil ●

Mechanism of Chinese Checkers ●





Terrain & buildings occupy specific holes

Movement restricted by board characteristics Researched battle narrative

1929 Political-Military Gaming ● ● ●

Invented by Eric von Manstein Explored German invasion of Poland Included players at many levels of leadership:  President

of the League of Nations  Cabinet Members of Germany and Poland  Diplomats from both countries  Military Generals

1933 Soviet Kriegsspiel ●

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Chess board with 2 rows added to each edge, 128 squares 24 pieces on each side Explicit representation of military forces of the early 20th century

1941 Japanese Wargaming ●

Fall 1941 Japanese gamed Pearl Harbor Attack ● ●



May 1943 gamed Battle of Midway ●



Japanese War College in Tokyo Partial success of attack is credited to wargames Aboard the Yamato, Flagship of the Combined Fleet

Tokyo Naval War College ●

Host for regular “Table-top maneuvers”

1948 First Computer War-game Army Operations Research Office at Johns Hopkins University ●

“Air Defense Simulation” ● ● ●



Hosted on the Univac computer North American air defense Naval anti-aircraft guided missiles

CARMONETTE ●





1953 Computerized Monte Carlo Simulation Tank/Anti-Tank (v.I), Infantry (v.II), Helicopters (v.III), Communications (v.IV) Operational 1956-1970

1952 Charles Roberts ●



Roberts invents board game to “practice war” while awaiting his commission Introduces primary pieces ● ● ● ● ●



Published as “Tactics” in 1954 ●



Grid System Terrain Types Military Units with Ratings Combat Results Table Die Role Sold 2,000 copies from 1954-58

Started Avalon Hill in 1958

1978 Janus ●





Derived from McClintic Theater Model from the Army War College Combat via CRT and random numbers Great flexibility to visual representation and combat via lookup table

1985 Naval Warfare Gaming System

1990 ModSAF ●







Semi-Automated Forces systems are constructive simulations designed to stimulate virtual systems Operated like a wargame Data stream like a simulator Human orders augmented by AI

1990 Battle Tech Arcade ●







Jordan Weisman, Chicago, IL Military-style simulator pods Computer networking for multi-player Derived from a role-playing game

1994 FPS ● ● ● ●

1991 Hovertank 1994 Wolfenstein 3D 1993-1995 Doom, Doom II, III 1996-1997 Quake, Quake II, III, IV

1995 Real Time Strategy ●







“2 ½ Dimension” map Control of large number of assets Strategic play within the constraints of rapid order entry Like speed chess

1996 Panzer General ●



Board game moved to the computer Add animation, sound, smoke, and fire – which do not effect the outcome, just the excitement

1997 MMORPG

1999 Team Fortress ●







Military mod of HalfLife Unique Soldier role behaviors Team cooperation to win Begin to demonstrate capability compatible with military units

1999 Fleet Command ●

Constructive and Virtual views of naval battles

Serious Games ●

1983 SGI Flight



1989 Harpoon



1996 Marine DOOM



1998 Spearhead







2002 America's Army 2003 DARWARS Ambush 2003 DARWARS Tactical Iraqi







2004 Full Spectrum Warrior 2009 VBS2/Game After Ambush 2600 Star Trek Holodeck



1983 Silicon Graphics demo program ● ●





Networking added in 1984 ● ● ● ●



Written by Gary Tarolli Inspired by Blue Angles air show at Moffett Field Sales tool for SGI computers Two machines on a serial cable No interactions 7 frames-per-second Demonstrated at SIGGRAPH 1984

1985 Modification of Flight program ● ●





Added shooting interactions Message packets transmitted at frame rates 10 player max because of bandwidth limitations Dead reckoning added later to reduce network flooding

1983 SGI Flight

1989 Harpoon ●





Based on miniature game by Larry Bond Two-sided naval combat during Cold War Entertainment and Military versions

1996 Marine DOOM ●

Marine Doom is a 1996 modification of the first-person shooter Doom II for US Marines, which was later made available for download to the public.

1998 Spearhead ●





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MaK teamed with Interactive Magic Game version of SIMNET and DIS “DIS-lite” to support network multiplayer Allows all 4 tank station play Infrared visuals Typical military training levels

2002 America's Army ● ●

AKA: Army Game Project Army recruiting tool created through partnership between ● ● ●









Army Accessions Command, West Point, and Naval Postgraduate School

Potential recruits experience virtual Army training before entering death match combat levels Built on Unreal Engine 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 Parents: COL Casey Wardynski and Dr. Mike Zyda, now divorced and no longer speaking to each other Multiple Spin-off products. Title is valuable Intellectual Property

2003 DARWARS Ambush ●





DARWARS was a DARPA sponsored project (with JFCOM and USMC PM TRASYS) to create training systems that incorporate games and related learning technologies AMBUSH! was the game component built on the Operation Flashpoint game Transferred to PEO-STRI in 2006 for deployment to Army Units ●

Now deployed to 400 sites

2003 DARWARS Tactical Iraqi ●





Language training game developed within the DARWARS program Conceived and created at USC ICT Spun-off as a commercial company and product

2004 Full Spectrum Warrior ●



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Joint Army/Entertainment title for the Xbox Create a game with entertainmentlevel quality, but with an embedded Army mission Dual-use Applications Microsoft agreed to support the title if it could be sold commercially as well USC ICT and Pandemic Studios Famous for having an Army-mode secret key which was immediately released on the Internet

2009 VBS2/Game After Ambush ●







VBS2 from Bohemia Interactive via LaserShot $17.7M contract to replace AMBUSH Acquired with out-of-the-box capabilities, no new development to meet requirements Scheduled to deliver 70 suites to 53 locations in 2009 ●



Active, Guard, Reserve and Projection units 3640 computers total

2600 Star Trek Holodeck

References ●

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_games



http://www.modelbenders.com/papers/game_history.html







Lenoir, T. (2003). Programming theatres of war: Gamemakers as soldiers. In Latham, R. (Ed.) Bombs and Bandwidth: The emerging relationship between information technology and security. New York: The New Press. Smith, R. (March-April 2007). The Disruptive Potential of Game Technologies: Lessons Learned from its Impact on the Military Simulation Industry. Research Technology Management, 50(2), 57–64. Herz, J. and Macedonia, M. (April 2002). Computer games and the military: Two views. Defense Horizons, 11. Online at http://www.ndu.edu/inss/DefHor/DH11/DH11.htm

Thanks