Appendix 1 – Summary of nanosatellite programs developed worldwide

Science and Technology. Narvik University ... system for applications in enhanced environmental policies. ... of Microsystem and Information. Technology, Chinese Academy of. Sciences .... magneto resistive magnetometer sensor-based ACS.
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Appendix 1 – Summary of nanosatellite programs developed worldwide No

Name of the program / project

University name

Nanosatellite name

1

SNAP Program

University of Surrey

SNAP-1

2

TUBSAT-N/N1 Nanosatellite Program

TU – Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin)

TUBSAT-N/N1

UWE-1 Project

Bayerische JuliusMaximilians-Universität Würzburg

UWE-1 (University of Würzburg's Experimental Satellite 1)

3

4

Norwegian Student Satellite Project

University of Oslo Norwegian University of Science and Technology Narvik University College Norwegian University of Life Sciences Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Umeå University, Luleå University of Technology, Southwest Research Institute

Project goals ▪ to provide a very low cost orbital test vehicle for microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS); ▪ to provide practical education and training for engineers in techniques and spacecraft design and construction. ▪ Technology Demonstrators ▪ Store and Forward Communication ▪ Attitude Control Experiments ▪ Analyzing the utilization of TCP/IP- techniques for telemetrical and telecommand - data with consideration of typical aerospace problems like delay and disturbance ▪ Implementing a Ground station and invoking it into a international network of CubeSat users via Internet ▪ Potentially testing of micro system components for attitude determination (gyro, determination of declination/inclination)

Country

U.K.

Germany

Germany

NCUBE 1, 2

▪ to design, build, integrate, test and launch a small satellite in order to provide students in Norwegian educational institutions with: hands-on experience with a real satellite mission; multidisciplinary collaboration; space project experience.

Norway

Munin

▪ to collect data on the auroral activity on both the northern and southern hemispheres, such that a global picture of the current state of activity can be made available on-line.

Sweden

5

Munin Project

6

EXPRESSO (Expérimentation et Projets Etudiants dans le Domaine des Systèmes Orbitaux et ballons stratosphériques) Program

CNES, Montpellier II University, Polytech’Montpellier

ROBUSTA

7

UniSat Program

University of Rome, ASI

Unisat, Unisat-2, Unisat-3, Unisat-4

▪ to enable students who wish to participate in the establishment of a true scientific experiment in flight; ▪ to validate models in orbit degradation of electronic components in space radiation environment. ▪ the education, with the aim of the participation of the students in all the phases of a real space program, from the initial mission concept to the operations in orbit; ▪ testing in orbit and space qualifying the terrestrial off

France

Italy

the shelf commercial and industrial components and technologies, yielding a direct technological interest for the industries and contributing to keep low the program cost and affordable for the University research budget. PiCPoT (Piccolo Cubo del Politecnico del Torino) Nanosat 1B, Nanosat 01

▪ the transmission of on-board telemetry measures (solar panel and battery temperature, voltage and current) and photos taken with commercial cameras.

8

PiCPoT Project

Politecnico di Torino

8

INTA NANOSAT Program

INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial)

10

Politehnica University satellite program

Politehnica University of Bucharest

PUBSAT

Riyadh Space Research Institute

SaudiComsat 1 SaudiComsat 2 SaudiComsat 3 SaudiComsat 4 SaudiComsat 5 SaudiComsat 6 SaudiComsat 7

▪ first generation of low-orbit micro-communication satellites (12 kg each) for commercial use (store and forward messagery). 24 satellites are planed to be launched in the future with different orbits to cover large parts of the world.

Saudi Arabia

Zheda Pixing 1 (MEMS-Pico)

▪ to provide a test bed in near-earth space for MEMS devices, such as accelerometer, micro-gyros and infrared sensors

China

11

Saudicomsat - Saudi Arabian Commercial Telecommunication Program

12

Joint program between Zhejiang University and Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

13

Naxing Project

14

Space Core Technology Development Program

Zhejiang University and Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Tsinghua University, Aerospace Tsinghua Satellite Technology Co.

Hankuk Aviation University

Naxing 1

HAUSAT-1

▪ to ensure communications with bases in the Antarctica zone Main goal of the program: developing a low cost orbital system for applications in enhanced environmental policies.

▪ to test small satellite technology; ▪ used for data transmission, remote sensing photography, and surveying and mapping experiments. Primary goal: ▪ to offer graduate and undergraduate student great opportunities and help them understand the whole development processes of satellite design, analysis, manufacturing, assembly, integration, test, launch, and operation, and consequently make them specialists in the field of satellite development. Mission objectives: - collecting the satellite position data with space borne GPS receiver;

Italy

Spain Romania

China

South Korea

15

CubeSat Program

Tokyo Institute of Technology/ Laboratory for Space Systems (LSS)

CUTE-1 CUTE-1.7

16

Hokkaido Institute of Technology HIT-SAT Project

Hokkaido Institute of Technology

HIT-SAT

17

Nihon University Nano Satellite Project

Nihon University, College of Science and Technology, Department of Aerospace Engineering

SEEDS-1,2 SPROUT

University of Tokyo's Student Nanosatellite Project

University of Tokyo

XI 1 (XI-I) XI 2 (XI-II) XI 3 (XI-III) XI 4 (XI-IV) XI 5 (XI-V)

Pehuensat Program

Argentine Association for Space Technology (AATE), Universidad Nacional del Comahue and AMSAT Argentina

PehuenSat 1

18

19

- experiment on deployment mechanism of solar cell panel; - space verification of homemade sun sensor; - getting data related to satellite Status of Health (SOH) from various sensors. ▪ to validate high-performance, commercially available products for the first time in space; ▪ to demonstrate new potential uses for small satellites in various space studies, as proposed by the “satellite-core” concept. Primary mission: ▪ the employment experiment of the attitude control system of a loading schedule in the Hokkaido satellite "TAIKI" SEEDS’s main goal: ▪ communication with the amateur ground stations, the sensing of the satellite housekeeping data, and the analysis of its orbit and attitude SPROUT’s objectives: ▪ to demonstrate a deployable membrane structure; ▪ to establish a cycle of demonstrating our research using nanosatellites. The XI ([sai]; X-factor Investigator) mission statement: ▪ on-orbit verifications of the technology necessary for super-small satellite system. Missions: - Gathering the satellite health information via beacon signal - Command uplink & data downlink - Telemetry data broadcasting service - On-orbit verification of the commercial-off-the-shell (COTS) components. ▪ to build and operate a small satellite whose mission is educational, technological and scientific. ▪ to provide an experiment platform to perform amateur radio experiments between colleges and universities of Argentina. This satellite will allow the participants to gain an

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Argentina

20

LatinSat/Aprize Satellite Program

Aprize Satellite Inc

LatinSat A, B, C, D

21

Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment (CanX) Program

University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS/SFL)

CanX-1, CanX-2, CanX-3 (BRITE), CanX-4&5

22

NASA’s New Millennium Program (NMP)

NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)

Space Technology 5 (ST-5a, ST-5b, ST-5c) a.k.a. NCT- Nanosat Constellation Trailblazer

23

NASA MicroSat Free Flyer (µSatFF) Project

NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) ISS NonExploration Projects (NExP)

PharmaSat 1, PreSat, GeneSat-1, GeneSat-2

important experience for future projects as part of the Pehuensat Program, with more complex missions. Constellation mission: to achieve a global communication system of data transmission and fixed and mobile asset tracking and monitoring (GMPCS). The nanosatellites are optimized for data relay with very low power consumption. ▪ to train students at the master’s level, channeling their varied undergraduate backgrounds into highly qualified areas of expertise through hands-on training in all aspects of spacecraft development; ▪ to push the limits of scientific understanding and technical capability; ▪ to provide a low-cost, accessible platform by which government agencies, universities and companies may conduct science or prove technologies in an orbital environment. Objectives: ▪ to develop and build the spacecraft bus that will enable the mission's multiple nanosats to be launched into space from a single rocket and spun into orbit approximately 4,500 kilometers above Earth; ▪ to demonstrate and space-test the ability of "smart" satellites to identify scientific events and implement cooperative data-taking strategies. ▪ The overall goal of PharmaSat 1 is to test and validate autonomous, in-situ bioanalytical and sample management technologies to implement a Principal Investigator defined science experiment to evaluate the efficacy of an antifungal drug agent on a biological specimen. ▪ The goal of GeneSat-1, 2 is to exploit and investigate the capabilities of Smallsats to accelerate the migration of key technologies to broader applications such as autonomous spacecraft operations, man-tended space vehicles, and novel ground-based research applications. ▪ Primary objectives of PreSat: - Demonstrate / validate Performance of NASA-Ames 2nd

Argentina

Canada

U.S.A.

U.S.A

24

US Naval Academy Aerospace Student Satellite Project

US Naval Academy Satellite Lab

RAFT1, MARScom (NMARS)

25

University of Hawaii CubeSat Program

University of Hawaii

UH CubeSat, Mea Huaka'i (Voyager)

26

Boston University Student-satellite for Applications and Training

Boston University

BUSat (Boston University Student-satellite for Applications and Training)

27

The University of Arizona Student Satellite Program

University of Arizona, Rincon Research Corporation

Rincon1

28

The University of Arizona Student Satellite Program

29

Montana State University's

University of Arizona Montpelier University and Alcatel Space Systems (France) Montana State University

SACRED MEROPE

Generation Modular Triple CubeSat Nanosatellite Platform; - Spaceflight Performance Evaluation of Generic BioFluidic Sample Management and Handling Subsystem using Optical Detection; - Evaluation of Payload Environmental Management Subsystem. RAFT1 mission: ▪ to provide a cubesat in the cubesat cluster which has an on-board transponder capable of identifying itself via the NSSS satellite Radar Tracking system to help locate the Cubesats. MARScom mission: ▪ to explore and demonstrate a very low cost yet viable communications capability for education and training of both Midshipmen and the large numbers of Navy Marine Corps communications cadre personnel. ▪ to design, fabricate and test cubesats ▪ significantly involve students in the design, fabrication, and operation of a low earth- orbiting small satellite and its instrumentation; ▪ develop a practical and useful ground operational facility. BUSat mission will acquire energetic electron data at high latitudes and will simultaneously acquire optical images of auroral arcs from horizon to horizon. ▪ to provide engineering data about the satellite's systems which will be used for future CubeSats; ▪ to measure and test the magnetic stabilization and the spin rate, which has never been done for such small satellites. ▪ to measure the total amount of high-energy radiation over a two-year span and will test four commercial integrated circuit components for their radiation hardness, functionality and annealing properties. ▪ to measure radiation in the Van Allen belts

U.S.A

U.S.A

U.S.A

U.S.A

U.S.A U.S.A.

MEROPE Program

(Space Science and Engineering Laboratory)

(Montana EaRth Orbiting PicoExplorer)

30

AFRL University Nanosat Program

Montana State University (Space Science and Engineering Laboratory)

31

Explorer 1 Program

Montana State University (Space Science and Engineering Laboratory)

Explorer 1 Prime

32

Montana State University Maia University Nanosatellite Project

Montana State University

MAIA

33

Pennsylvania State Nanosat Program

Pennsylvania State University

NittanySat

34

University of Texas Nanosatellite Program

University of Texas (Austin)

FASTRAC (Formation

SpaceBuoy

▪ to measure several ionospheric plasma parameters essential to space weather forecasting from a nanosatellite platform using co-developed instruments; ▪ to demonstrate that data can be made available to the forecasting community in 1.5 hours of being taken. ▪ to detect the Van Allen radiation belts in honor of the 50th anniversary of Explorer I, America’s first satellite that first discovered the cloud of highly energetic electrons trapped in the Earths magnetic field; ▪ demonstrate software technology developed at SSEL that uses a popular chip radio to close a high speed data link with standard ham radio hardware allowing people around the world to contact the satellite and download science and housekeeping data. Engineering goals: ▪ test bed for technologies; ▪ science support platform; ▪ deploy a solar power wing; ▪ active 3-axis attitude control. Science goals: ▪ measure variations in the charged particle flux near Earth; ▪ solid State Technology; ▪ effects of Solar Storms on Ionospheric Energy Input. Technologies goals: ▪ elastic Memory Composite Hinge; ▪ magneto resistive magnetometer sensor-based ACS control system; ▪ consumer parts and subsystems. ▪ ionospheric science measurements; ▪ demonstrations of software-defined radio communications systems, deployable structures, and MEMs technology. ▪ to investigate enabling technologies crucial for satellite formations, including on-orbit micro-thrust capability,

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

35

ION-F (Ionospheric Observation Nanosatellite Formation) program

Utah State University, University of Washington, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Autonomy Spacecraft with Thrust, Relnav, Attitude and Crosslink)

relative navigation, attitude determination, and satellite crosslink communications. Three primary technical objectives: 1. the micro discharge plasma thruster experiment; 2. the GPS relative navigation experiment; 3. the construction of a civilian distributed ground station network.

USUsat I, DawgStar, HokieSat

▪ to investigate satellite coordination and management technologies; ▪ to perform distributed ionospheric measurements.

36

4th University Nanosatellite Competition

Utah State University

TOROID

37

CoSGC CubeSat Program

University of Colorado (Colorado Space Grant Consortium)

HERMES

38

Kansas Universities’ Technology Evaluation Satellite (KUTESat) Program

University of Kansas

KUTESAT-1 KUTESAT-2

39

Cal Poly PolySat Program

California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly)

CP1, CP2, CP3, CP4, CP5

40

Worcester Polytechnic Institute Nanosat-3 (N3) Program

Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI)

PANSAT (Powder Metallurgy and Navigation

▪ to test and validate the concept of a duplexed monopole antenna PIP; ▪ to measure electron temperature, density and collision frequency in equatorial plasma bubbles; ▪ to test and validate the concept of the TOROID mechanism. ▪ to improve CubeSat communications through the onorbit testing of a high data-rate communication system that will allow the downlink of large quantities of data, making CubeSat imaging or high-data quantity science easily feasible. ▪ to create a reproducible and extensible spacecraft bus in the support of future missions Technical objective: ▪ the development and operation of miniature satellites that can demonstrate and test technologies and techniques necessary to accomplish various Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA missions. ▪ to build small satellites that perform a variety of scientific research and explore new technologies in space; ▪ to build and operate a small satellite whose mission is educational, technological and scientific. Nanosatellite used as a vehicle to investigate: 1) a GPS based navigation and orientation determination system; 2) the use of a powder metallurgy (P/M) component

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A

U.S.A.

Satellite)

41

University Nanosat-1 Program

Stanford University, Santa Clara University

EMERALD

42

University Nanosatellite Program Nanosat 2

Carnegie Mellon University

Solar Blade Nanosatellite

43

Constellation Pathfinder Program (University Nanosatellite Program - Nanosat 2)

Boston University

Constellation Pathfinder

44

Air Force University Nanosatellite Program-Nanosat 2

New Mexico State University, Arizona State University, University of Colorado (Boulder)

3 Corner Satellite

design methods to develop the primary satellite bus structure. Specific program highlights include the successful development of: i) a high quality satellite tracking and communications system, ii) powder metallurgy components of the satellite bus structure, iii) the sensor and communications subsystem, iv) the triple modular redundant processor system, v) the GPS navigation and orientation system, vi) a very high reliability and efficient solar cell power system using custom designed switching power supplies, and vii) the satellite navigation/stability system. ▪ to support and demonstrate Robust Distributed Space Systems concepts. Key technologies to be demonstrated includes: - Spaceborne-GPS; - Advanced Propulsion; - Autonomous Operations and Navigation; - Distributed Computing Architecture; - Formation Flying; - Radiation Experiment. ▪ to demonstrate attitude precession, spin rate management, and orbital adjustments, after which it will sail out past the orbit of the moon. ▪ to maintain a close proximity to an observation spacecraft, flying in tandem for the first stage of the mission. ▪ to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and launching one to three,